The Latin American Diaries |

Travelling to do a PhD: The role of international postgraduate students in networks of information circulation

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by Jose Luis Guevara Salamanca, Research Student, Institute of Latin American Studies

I am writing this post one year after arriving in London. Having finished my undergraduate studies in 2005 in Colombia I began looking for a place abroad where I could develop my scholarly career. Eventually, in 2011, after six years in academic publishing, I took a Master’s in History in Colombia, and then in 2015 I began my PhD here at ILAS.

From the beginning I have been interested in the history of books, and during my PhD I have been able to relate this topic to questions about the legitimacy of knowledge, the roots of public policies on science and technology in Latin America, and how my personal experience fits into global networks of knowledge production and information circulation that have driven particular projects by scholars new and old.

For many British scholars the idea of coming to the UK to study the history of the book in Peru and Colombia seems strange. But the biggest surprise to me was not their posture, but rather how I took for granted that I would go abroad to do my PhD. Why did this seem the next logical step in my career? Clearly the main reason is that accumulation of capital and knowledge had created an imbalance in scientific and academic development between Colombia and the UK. Consider alone the concentration of books that Bloomsbury provides for the students of UCL, the School of Advanced Study, SOAS, and other institutes and members of the University of London.

Senate_House_Library,_University_of_London

A reading room at Senate House library, Bloomsbury

However, this vision only reproduces the traditional scale of centre-periphery explanations, which basically rely on an economic perspective to study the relations (and perhaps hierarchies) between different places[1]. In my research there is an ongoing battle to separate myself from perspectives that reduce cultural and social variables to the flows of capital, thereby hiding the networks that allow us to identify global organisations that challenge the metropole-colony understanding.

In this struggle for intellectual independence a question emerges: is it possible that after more than 200 years of independent history Latin America has not created its own, original corpus of knowledge? I have heard many explanations of why Latin America has not produced a school of thought distanced from European roots, with an underlying frustration about never becoming a place where knowledge is produced instead of reproduced. Could it be a lack of PhD programs in universities? The absence of a strong conversation among our scholars? A public policy that cannot free production of knowledge from “dependency” on Europe?

Two trains of thought split off from this issue. The first one relates to the common binary explanation in which “first world academia” is opposed to “third world academia” because of the obvious resource imbalances and the dependency of the latter on the former. The second, meanwhile, sees the circulation of information and knowledge as a global network that connects different geographies beyond the developed economies.

In the first case, voices from different parts of the world have gradually achieved global recognition[2] since the midpoint of the twentieth century, emerging from former colonies of the Imperial European enterprises. As such, oppositions like “developed world” and “emerging economies”, or “first world” and “third world”, can be understood as euphemisms for colonizer and colonized.[3] This is especially true where mechanisms of legitimacy of knowledge – rankings, databases, avenues to scholarly publication – work more in terms of the market than of scientific progress. However, this dichotomy only creates a dual vision that disempowers knowledge producers outside of the major centres. These producers, of course, already suffer from a lack visibility within a largely Anglophone system which reinforces the idea that “discoveries” happen in specific places[4].

The second case tells a different story, albeit one that provides as many questions as answers. An understanding of how information circulates outside of the bipolar world demands a broader view encompassing materials, channels, translations, deviations, influences, interests, global contributions to knowledge production, and meanings achieved by readers as active participants in the reproduction of information. Instead of telling a story of isolated creators blessed by “genetically unique cleverness”, this view underlines the connections, borrowings, influences and multiple ways in which the world of scholarship is linked. One of the ways in which geographically separate academic arenas encounter each other is through PhD students themselves. Although we come here to learn, in many cases we have an ongoing research career in our countries.  And because of the nature of our economies and our growing academic sectors, many students already have some experience of publishing, teaching and researching. We carry our own methods, questions, interests, and passions along with us on our research voyages.

For Colombian scholars the PhD is sometimes considered the summit of an academic career. It comes, especially in the social sciences and humanities, after lengthy research projects at undergraduate and Master’s level.[5] Reaching the required language proficiency for a PhD in a non-Spanish speaking country can also represent a significant and time-consuming challenge. Some scholars spend years looking for funding, studying languages and completing relevant exams and applications. This idea of the PhD as the pinnacle of one’s career is also shaped by the fact that once in post at a Colombian university, academics have to split their time between research itself, administrative tasks and teaching courses, many of which do not fit their area of expertise. Thus, later research lacks the luxury of time afforded by the PhD.

In the UK, meanwhile, the PhD dissertation is considered the beginning of a scholar’s academic life. The publication of the thesis as a monograph helps to position the researcher in a given field and that process turns the young scholar into an author: he or she knows how to respond to the publisher’s expectations, how to rewrite a text for a more general audience, and how to sell the idea of the project within a particular collection or series. This training in the communication of science and knowledge is part of the PhD process, allowing for insertion of the scholar into particular networks of information dissemination.

To come to the UK is to take part in a process of dissemination that flows in many directions – not only from Europe or North America to the rest of the world. Perhaps we have been too focused on showing how the “centre” spreads around the globe rather than how different geographies nourish each other. Gone are the days when audiences, readers, students and consumers were understood as passive agents in the processes of circulation of goods and texts, for new advances in the study of consumption, readership and education have shown how meaning changes in the process of circulation and how the practice of reception has come to define the production of knowledge itself.

 

Notes:

[1] Peter Burke works on this perspective on his book, A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot, Kindle edition (Cambridge, UK : Malden, Mass: Polity, 2000). Effectively, this author locates the center-periphery approach into the geographical explanation of circulation of knowledge, this strengthens the idea that behind those geopolitical explanations exist an specific way of understand the space, also position geography in the middle of this debate.

[2] Authors like Samir Amin, Edward Said, Dipesh Chakravarti, Sanjay Subrahmanyan, Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, Walter Mignolo and Jorge Canizares Esguerra have become widely known.

[3] Many of those voices have been gathered in academic trends that have searched for rewritte the colonial history like the postcolonial studies, decolonial studies and subaltern studies. However, many of this alternatives have been born in Southeast Asia, for that reason they tell the story of colonialism from the experience of the British Empire. A few steps ahead have been done for Hispanic American colonies in the work edited by Mark Thurner and Andrés Guerrero, After Spanish Rule. Postcolonial Predicaments of the Americas (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2003).

[4] Examples could be found in the difficult access to works in Chinese and Japanese history because of the lack of use of English. Sanjay Subrahmanyan, Writing History ‘Backwards’: Southeastern Asian History (and the Annales) at the Crossroads. Studies in History, 10(1994), 131-145. Even many of the works in Latin American history written in Spanish are absent from certain networks of circulation because of the language barrier.

[5] Although this is changing because the years to get an undergraduate diploma have been reduced considerably in recent times.

Comments

  1. Natalia Puerta

    Hola Luis. Yo estoy haciendo un Master en Artes en UCL tambien en Londres y me encuentro haciendo esta misma reflexion. Me gustaria hacer contacto contigo porque mi tesis va en esta perspectiva. Hazme saber. Un saludo.

    Reply
  2. María Gabriela López Yánez

    “is it possible that after more than 200 years of independent history Latin America has not created its own, original corpus of knowledge? I have heard many explanations of why Latin America has not produced a school of thought distanced from European roots, with an underlying frustration about never becoming a place where knowledge is produced instead of reproduced. Could it be a lack of PhD programs in universities? The absence of a strong conversation among our scholars? A public policy that cannot free production of knowledge from “dependency” on Europe?”

    Hola Luis :)! Yo estoy haciendo mi PhD en drama en Goldsmiths. Soy Ecuatoriana. No estoy segura si entendí bien tu punto, pero mi respuesta lógica al cuestionamiento de si existe o no un corpus de conocimiento original en Latinoamérica es, porsupuesto que existe! siempre se ha producido -y no sólo reproducido- conocimiento en latinoamérica! El conocimiento va más allá de las instituciones académicas, existió antes y existirá mucho después de ellas. El conocimiento no tiene que ser parte de un libro o estar en una biblioteca o una tesis para ser considerado conocimiento (mira los quipus, las danzas ancestrales, la curandería entre muchas otras cosas). Nisiquiera hay que ser académica para tener un conocimiento profundo y coherente. A mi parecer, hay muchas geografías de resistencia en América Latina que no dependen en absoluto -o luchan y han luchado siempre para no depender- de Europa. Hay resistencias que no se escriben ni tienen por qué escribirse en inglés, muchas no se escriben en absoluto sino que se invocan, se cantan o se bailan :)! Eso nomás. Gracias por compartir tu reflexión que seguro va a dar pie a muchas otras.

    Reply
  3. María Gabriela López Yánez

    ah! y tienes razón! A mí también me gusta mucho vivir en Londres por el acceso a montón de información en las bibliotecas, journals, etc. PERO, también extraño el acceso a información que tenía en América Latina, (y que definitivamente no existe acá!) no sólo en las Instituciones Académicas (que tienes razón, son mucho más limitadas que las de acá), sino en las montañas, en el aparente silencio de las comunidades, aparente porque si te detienes un rato te das cuenta que un sabio runa te puede enseñar más que mil PhDs… es un conocimiento que jamás te va a dar una biblioteca Europea…

    Reply
    1. Jose Guevara

      Hola María Gabriela, muchas gracias por tu comentario, es verdad hay conocimientos sobre el mundo que escapan a las formas en que hemos legitimado lo que es verdad y lo que no. Olvidé en mi texto anotar que me estaba centrando en esas formas institucionalizadas (sobre todo en nuestro sistema educativo actual, la centralidad del libro y la palabra escrita) de producción del conocimiento y no hablaba de las diversas formas de explicar la naturaleza que encontramos en América Latina. Muchas gracias por tu comentario, creo que es muy valioso tu aporte y debí ser más claro en eso.

      A partir de tu aporte me gustaría dejar para la reflexión la idea sobre cómo estas formas de pensamiento se articulan con lo que llamamos América Latina y hasta qué punto han sido parte no solo de la creación de la idea de América Latina sino también hasta dónde pueden haber aportado en la misma creación del mundo moderno. Entiendo tu postura sobre la resistencia, si no estoy mal Boaventura de Souza tiene trabajos muy interesantes al respecto. Sí creo que hay esfuerzos por recuperar y resignificar la forma en que entendemos estos conocimientos, y serían una fuente interesante para repensar muchas de las categorías desde las cuales pensamos nuestra historia. Sin embargo consideraría también una opción rastrear también los vínculos y articulaciones sobre las cuales se formó América Latina, para entender que tal vez estos grupos no estuvieron tan lejos de las formas de poder como a veces pensamos.

      Muchas gracias de nuevo y suerte con tus estudios.

      Reply
      1. Carlos

        This is a real quandary, so thanks for addressing. In trying to contribute to the conversation, I think that if the intentions of decentered locales of knowledge production are to contribute to the centered ones, then the disadvantages are too obvious to tell. On the other hand, if these are producing local knowledge for local purposes (that might even affect policy-making institutions), then these should not be measured by the same transnational academic stick. In fact, the latter example will attract the attention of the international scholar for her own academic research disembodying, once again, academic communities. The question then becomes, are we migrant students to produce knowledge for the purpose of our academic environments, or to contribute to our local areas of research? Ideally, both, but we may face the same provintialicing from Western academic orthodoxy while at the same trying trying to start in it.

        Carlos Cuestas, PhD Ethnomusicology Student, City University of New York, The Graduate Center

        Reply

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